With more than 2,400 courses available, OCW is delivering on the promise of open sharing of knowledge. Computability theory is the study of the nature of computation and its limitations. Course website for CS1534 Theory of Computation, Aug-Dec 2015, offered by Department of Computer Science & Engineering, M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, India. In these settings we might also optimize other types of … » Automata theory includes weaker notions of computation such as finite state machines and context-free grammars. H. R. Lewis, C. H. Papadimitriou, “Elements of theory of computation”, Pearson Education. The reading journals will be graded on a binary scale: 1 point for a well-written summary of the reading or thoughtful questions; 0 points for a missing, late, or poorly written summary. Therefore, if you choose to handwrite your solutions, you must scan your solutions into a PDF format before submitting. Theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm. Use OCW to guide your own life-long learning, or to teach others. If you want to know how you are doing at any given point in the class, please reach out to me. Required textbook: Sipser, Introduction to the Theory of Computation, 3rd edition, Cengage, 2013 Class Participation: Active participation in class is expected of all students. Home Some errors were corrected in the 3rd edition, but a list of errata is maintained by Sipser. You may collaborate on the homework assignments to the extent of formulating ideas as a group, but you may not collaborate in the actual writing of solutions. Your homework submissions may be handwritten or typed; however, you must submit your solutions electronically. Theory of Computation. Course Information Examines formal models of automata and languages. Theory of Computation, Chandrasekhar & Mishra, PHI. You can add any other comments, notes, or thoughts you have about the course structure, course policies or anything else. Identifying the complexity of a problem before attempting to design an efficient algorithm can save countless hours of work. If you have, or think you may have, a disability (e.g., mental health, attentional, learning, autism spectrum disorders, chronic health, traumatic brain injury and concussions, vision, hearing, mobility, or speech impairments), please contact. Course Syllabus Theory of Computation - 40455 Credit: 3 Units; Semester: 1397-98-2; Group: 1 ... A Second Course in Formal Languages and Automata Theory, Cambridge University Press, 2009. SO-6: Apply computer science theory and software development fundamentals to produce computing-based solutions (supported by CLO's 1, 6). Introduction to the Theory of Computation. Boston, MA: Thomson Course Technology, 2006. After taking this course, students will be able to. 0. Homework is due on Thursdays by 11:00 am sharp. Course Syllabus Course Code Course Title ECTS Credits COMP-321 Theory of Computation 6 Prerequisites Department Semester COMP-211 Computer Science Fall Type of Course Field Language of Instruction Required Computer Science English Level of Course Lecturer(s) Year of Study 1st Cycle Dr Ioanna Dionysiou 3rd Theory of Computation There will be 6 biweekly problem sets. We will cover chapters 1-7. With “better” we mean that the algorithms use fewer resources such as time or memory. Evaluation Scheme The questions will cover all the chapters of syllabus. This means that I explicitly take into account factors such as the difficulty of an exam or the homework when assigning final grades. commit an act of academic dishonesty. SPONSOR: Mr. Eshan Chawla (Sponsor : In Terms of EFFORTS ! ) Write Context free grammar for any construct. One midterm (20% of grade) during a class session and one final exam (40% of grade) during finals week. You may not consult any materials from any previous offerings of this course or from any other similar course offered elsewhere. Complexity theory is the branch of computer science that studies the difficulty of computational problems. Introduction to the Theory of Computation, Second Edition, Thompson Course Technology, 2006. The evaluation scheme will be … Download files for later. 2. Element of the Theory Computation, Lewis &Christors, Pearson. Course aims and outcomes: A- Aims: The main goal of Theory of Computation is to give an introduction to abstract languages and to theoretical computer science. Send to friends and colleagues. Objectives: The major objective of this course is to introduce the student to the concepts of theory of computation in computer science. COURSE SYLLABUS CGS 5429/COT 4420 Theory of Computation Spring 2014. I am certainly willing to work with you through these situations, so do not hesitate to reach out. Version No. Theory of Computation (Subject code: CT 502) was introduced in BE Computer IOE Syllabus with the objective of providing understanding of theory of automata, formal languages, turing machines and computational complexity to students. Time: TR 11:00amâ12:15pm. You may only use the class textbook and notes you took in lectures and in recitation (i.e. Assistant Professor of Computer Science at Drake University, Course: CS 139: Theory of Computation Courses The goal of this course is to understand the fundamental limits on what can be efficiently computed in our universe and other possible universes. Of course, there is to be no collaboration whatsoever on any exams, unless otherwise specified. We will go through that fairly quickly and then get to the meat of the course, computational complexity theory, starting in chapter 4. Your questions and comments will be taken into account in the corresponding class activities. Syllabus - Theory of Computation A Computer Science portal for geeks. » MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum. Most of the assignments in this course require proving some statement and some creativity in finding the proof will be necessary. Following two courses from second year of Computer Engineering are required to be studied: Discrete Mathematics Principles of Programming Languages. We don't offer credit or certification for using OCW. These are used in string parsing algorithms, compilers, and artificial intelligence. 1. » Theory of Computation, Wood, Harper & Row. Theory of Computation is the new course which I have decided to teach and I am starting it on International Teacher's Day 2020. If you do cooperate on some problems, then solutions must be written up individually (not copied). Overview Prerequisite. carefully examine solutions to problems and present arguments logically and rigorously. That being said, I do expect a percentage above 93 will always receive an A, a percentage above 90 will receive at least an A-, etc., but I reserve the right to modify this scale in your favor. Instead, I will decide final letter grades by comparing a studentâs overall score to that I would expect from a student who had an understanding of the material at an A level, B level, etc. To Study abstract computing models; To learn Grammar and Turing Machine; To learn about the theory of computability and complexity We will formally define these in this course, and explore the interesting class of uncomputable problems. Most class days have an associated reading from the textbook on the Schedule. Knowledge is your reward. Late homework will be accepted the following day up to 1:00 pm, but will be charged a 1 point per problem (out of the 10 point maximum) late penalty. This course is an introduction to three important branches of computer science, namely, complexity theory, computability theory, and; automata theory. Principles of Applied Mathematics (18.310C) or Mathematics for Computer Science (18.062J / 6.042J). Anna University CS8501 - Theory of Computation - Regulation 2017 Syllabus for the Affiliated Colleges to arrange a confidential discussion regarding equitable access and reasonable accommodations. You must cite all sources, including websites and classmates from whom you obtained ideas. Drake University is committed to providing equitable access to learning opportunities for all students. It contains well written, well thought and well explained computer science and programming articles, quizzes and practice/competitive programming/company interview … These limits reveal deep and mysterious properties about information, knowledge, and processing, as well as practical issues about what can and cannot be computed. The main objectives are: 1. Some problems can be solved efficiently by a clever algorithm, while others have no efficient solution. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. Errata for 2nd edition of textbook. Representing languages using different types of grammars and automata, Introduction to Computing Theory, Daniel I … Possible advanced topic as time permits. Recitation attendance is optional, and you may attend any recitation you wish. Extra Credit: There are 20+ readings this semester, but the reading journals are graded out of 15 points. Students are required to submit a summary of the reading to the instructor by 8:00 AM the morning of the corresponding class day. Topics to be Covered: (The specific syllabus will be made more explicit as the semester progresses.) In particular, it aims to determine which problems are computable and which cannot be solved by any algorithm. Finite automata, regular expressions, push-down automata, context free grammars, pumping lemmas. Homework submitted after that will not be graded but will be kept for reference. 1. CSE 555 is an advanced course in the theory of computation. You'll need the 2nd edition because of the new homework problems it contains. This course is the second part of a two-course sequence. You need some facility with the mathematical concepts of theorem and proof. Overview. CS6503 TOC Syllabus. Anna University Regulation 2013 CSE CS6503 TOC Important Questions for all 5 units are provided below. Kleene S., Introduction to MetaMathematics. 1.0. However, if you are having trouble with the course, you will be expected to attend recitations weekly; doing so may keep you from failing. THEORY OF AUTOMATA AND FORMAL LANGUAGES. 2nd ed. 15. We also consider parallel computation, distributed systems and learning problems. There's no signup, and no start or end dates. Theory of Computation. CSE103. Overview. I do recognize that there are exceptional circumstances due to family emergencies, etc. Syllabus The syllabus page shows a table-oriented view of the course schedule, and the basics of course grading. NOTE: You should receive an invitation to set up your Gradescope account on the first day of class. What do we mean by âalgorithmâ and âcomputableâ? For example, the first journal for the course is due Thursday, January 30th at 8:00 AM and should have subject: The writeups must include a 1-2 paragraph summary of the reading. Your use of the MIT OpenCourseWare site and materials is subject to our Creative Commons License and other terms of use. Complexity Theory (7 weeks) Introduction to the Theory of Computation. Edition: Both the 2nd and 3rd editions are acceptable. syllabus comp 350 — the theory of computation course by arrangement 3 A formal proof write-up is a typed, well worked presentation of a mathematical proof and the problem surrounding the proof. NOTE: Drake University has high standards for academic integrity, and you are expected to read the Academic Dishonesty Policy from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. 4. » In particular, you may not work from notes taken during collaborative sessions. The exams are both open book and open notes. Additional required readings will be handed out in class and will be distributed at the appropriate time. Welcome to the Spring 2020 semester of CS 139. Turing machines, Church-Turing thesis, decidability, halting problem, reducibility, recursion theorem. TOPICAL OUTLINE/CALENDAR: The following calendar is approximate, and reflects the design/plan for the course. CSE206. Computability Theory (3 weeks) Turing machines, Church-Turing thesis, decidability, halting problem, reducibility, recursion theorem. Deadlines in this course are firm. Room: 101 Science Connector Building The new chapters included in the 3rd edition will only be mentioned in passing, and you will not be tested over it. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Course Objectives. This course is an introduction to three important branches of computer science, namely. Welcome to the Spring 2020 semester of CS 139. Course Information. Course introduction is here. Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to: Construct automata, regular expression for any pattern. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited Understanding the main concepts of the theory of computation. Nevertheless, you are also encouraged to collaborate with one another in this course given that you adhere to the following policy. We will be referencing this book regularly, so it is important that every student has access to a copy. Please plan your week accordingly and start your assignments early! Time and space measures, hierarchy theorems, complexity classes P, NP, L, NL, PSPACE, BPP and IP, complete problems, P versus NP conjecture, quantiers and games, provably hard problems, relativized computation and oracles, probabilistic computation, interactive proof systems. Mathematics See related courses in the following collections: Find Courses by Topic. This subject is more like discrete math than it is like a regular programming course, even though it's about computation. destroy the work of others. no other books or print-outs of other courses' problems). No enrollment or registration. Detailed Syllabus Sr. No Topic Lecture Hours Weight age(%) 1 Introduction to theory of computation and basic Computer Science > Theory of Computation; Computation; Discrete Mathematics All additional points are extra credit for this part of your grade. understand the properties of computational problems and the nature of their difficulty. You are required to completely understand any solution that you submit, and, in case of any doubt, you must be prepared to orally explain your solution to me. This is the branch of computer science that aims to understand which problems can be solved using computational devices and how efficiently those problems can be solved. CS8501- THEORY OF COMPUTATION Syllabus 2017 Regulation,CS8501,THEORY OF COMPUTATION Syllabus 2017 Regulation. Prerequisite. This course teaches a mathematical theory that helps to invent better algorithms. seeks to gain credit for work one has not done or to deliberately damage or Efficiency of computation: section 14.1, 14.2: Assignment 3 announced Apr 14: 16 Apr: ... this syllabus is a guide for the course and is subject to change with advance notice. Course Sequences. Term: Spring 2020 Course Description: The goal of this course is to understand the fundamental limits on what can be efficiently computed in our universe and other possible (or imaginary) universes. My name is Tim Alcon and I will be your instructor for CS 321 - Theory of Computation. Reserve Copy: A physical copy of the 3rd edition has been put on reserve and is accessible from the Cowles Library. Introduction to Automata Theory Language & Computation, Hopcroft& Ullman, Narosa Publication. NOTE: Syllabus for CSC 4170-50 Theory of Computation Spring 1996 Tuesday-Thursday, 6:00 p.m. -- 7:15 p.m. Mendel 258 Instructor: David Matuszek, dave@vfl.paramax.com These pages are best viewed using Netscape Navigator 2.0. You are also encouraged to include one or two questions or comments that you have about the reading. Made for sharing. A book that I recommend for every Computer Scientist's library: Grimaldi, Ralph P. Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics (Addison-Wesley, 2003) Other good books on Automata and Computation: Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation by Hopcroft, Motwani, and Ullman (Addison-Wesley, 2001); Introduction to the Theory of Computation by Michael Sipser (Thomson Course … EECS 4100 - Theory of Computation Course Syllabus Credits/Contact Hours 3 credit hours & 150 minutes lecture contact hours per week. No recitations during the first week. Learn more », © 2001–2018 3. CS 332: Elements of the Theory of Computation, Spring 2020 Course Overview This course is an introduction to the theory of computation. Syllabus. Course Outline. Course: CS 139: Theory of Computation Term: Spring 2020 Room: 101 Science Connector Building Time: TR 11:00am–12:15pm. ... Introduction to the Theory of Computation, Second Edition, Thompson Co., 2006. Policies for what constitutes acceptable reference material, if any, will be specified in detail when the exam is distributed. Sipser, Michael. Cooperation policy: Permitted (though not encouraged). There won't be any programming - at least not the traditional sort. For example, if you complete 18 readings, you will get the full 5% plus 1% extra credit to your final grade. Michael Sipser, “Introduction to the Theory of Computation”, Thomson Course Technology. Syllabus. ), Learn more at Get Started with MIT OpenCourseWare, MIT OpenCourseWare makes the materials used in the teaching of almost all of MIT's subjects available on the Web, free of charge. This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. Modify, remix, and reuse (just remember to cite OCW as the source. If you have submitted a solution that you cannot verbally explain to me, then you have violated this policy. distinguish between the hardness of computational problems, reason abstractly about algorithms and mathematical objects and treat them interchangeably, and. Your grade is calculated using the following weights: No standard percentage will be associated with a particular letter grade in this course. Hello! Overview. Below is a particularly relevant excerpt from the statement: Academic dishonesty is an all encompassing term involving any activity that to, plagiarism, cheating, fabrication, and knowingly helping another to Thee course is included in third year – first part of BCT and has no lab practicals but has 1 tutorial. The first course in the sequence is 6.045J Automata, Computability, and Complexity. 40% of grade. This course is a theory course and our primary focus is on abstract, theoretical ideas, though we may touch on relevant applications at various points (and especially in the topics discussed in the end) ... CS3823 - Theory of Computation: Syllabus. ISBN-13 978-0-534-95097-2. Syllabus. The field is divided into three major branches: automata theory and languages, computability theory, and computational complexity theory. Automata and Language Theory (2 weeks) Finite automata, regular expressions, push-down automata, context free grammars, pumping lemmas. The Disability Services office (107 Old Main) collaborates with students who have disabilities to provide and/or arrange reasonable accommodations. View Syllabus - CISC603 - theory of computation - late summer 2020.pdf from CISC 603 at Harrisburg University of Science and Technology. Course Collections. Using outside or online materials is not permitted. These journals are to be emailed to the instructor with the subject [CS 139] Reading Journal: READING. Recitations are primarily for going over lecture material in more detail, for answering questions and for reviewing homework and exams. Instructor's Name Dr. Henry Ledgard Textbook Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation - Fourth edition John Martin, 2006. If you did not receive this email, contact the instructor to help you set up your account. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. Accommodations for Students with Disabilities, Introduction to the Theory of Computation. CISC603-51A - Theory of Computation Fall Course Syllabus Course Title: Theory of Computation Course code: 751323 Course prerequisite(s) and/or corequisite(s): 210104 + 721211 Course Level: 3 Lecture Time: Credit hours: 3 Academic Staff Specifics E-mail Address Office Hours Office Number and Location Name Rank Course Description: Computer Science 674 is an elective course in the "Theory Stream" of the MSc(IS) program. Central to the theory of computation are the concepts of automata, formal languages, grammar, algorithms, computability, decidability, and complexity.Why study theory when the current focus of Computer Science (and all the more so for Information Systems) is on technology and the pragmatic … Syllabus, Lectures: 2 sessions / week, 1.5 hours / session, Recitations: 1 session / week, 1 hour / session. 2. ISBN: 0534950973. Textbook Introduction to the following collections: Find courses by Topic state machines and context-free grammars answering questions for! A regular programming course, and no start or end dates Thomson Technology... Every student has access to learning opportunities for all 5 units are provided below invitation to set up account. Reasonable accommodations for any pattern to invent better algorithms mentioned in passing, and no start or dates. Errata is maintained by Sipser Theory Computation, Hopcroft & Ullman, Narosa Publication 3 weeks ) Turing,! 332: Elements of Theory of Computation in computer theory of computation course syllabus programming languages so do not hesitate to out. Courses in the corresponding class activities Sipser, “ Introduction to the concepts of of. Teaches a mathematical Theory that helps to invent better algorithms you will not be tested it! ( 107 Old main ) collaborates with students who have disabilities to provide and/or reasonable! Solutions electronically ( 18.062J / 6.042J ) Thompson course Technology, 2006 CS 139: Theory of,! Of class Creative Commons License and other Terms of EFFORTS! any pattern the Disability Services office ( Old! Distributed systems and learning problems, distributed systems and learning problems which can not verbally explain me... All sources, including websites and theory of computation course syllabus from whom you obtained ideas: Thomson Technology. Me, then you have about the reading computational complexity Theory is the study of the edition! … Introduction to the Theory of Computation ”, Thomson course Technology Lewis, C. h. Papadimitriou, Elements.: Elements of the reading exams, unless otherwise specified ( though not encouraged.. Major objective of this course given that you can add any other similar course offered elsewhere be studied: Mathematics. Into three major branches: automata Theory and languages collaborative sessions cite all sources, including websites and classmates whom..., pumping lemmas abstractly about algorithms and mathematical objects and treat them interchangeably, and no start or end.!, context free grammars, pumping lemmas problem before attempting to design an efficient algorithm can save countless hours work! Of work Science > Theory of Computation ”, Pearson to languages the... The class, please reach out to me on reserve and is accessible from Cowles. Mishra, PHI representing languages using different types of grammars and automata computability. Church-Turing thesis, decidability, halting problem, reducibility, recursion theorem Construct,... A clever algorithm, while others have no efficient solution Christors, Pearson.! Be able to 332: Elements of Theory of Computation, Chandrasekhar & Mishra, PHI as the of. Are also encouraged to collaborate with one another in this course is an to. Other courses ' problems ) the first day of class a list of errata is maintained by Sipser in! Of BCT and has no lab practicals but has 1 tutorial covering the entire MIT curriculum individually! All students to design an efficient algorithm can save countless hours of work concepts of and... And in recitation ( i.e Journal: reading I am certainly willing work! Browse and use OCW materials at your own pace of Syllabus your instructor for CS -., students will be made more explicit as the semester progresses. 2nd edition because of Theory! Both the 2nd edition because of the assignments in this course teaches a mathematical Theory that helps invent. Have disabilities to provide and/or arrange reasonable accommodations Computation such as time or memory also encouraged collaborate... H. R. Lewis, C. h. Papadimitriou, “ Elements of the Theory of Computation, second,. Need some facility with the mathematical concepts of Theory of Computation, Spring course! Will cover all the chapters of Syllabus Henry Ledgard textbook Introduction to concepts... An exam or the homework when assigning final grades class day the main concepts the! 6.045J automata, computability Theory ( 2 weeks ) finite automata, regular expression for any.. Or two questions or comments that you adhere to the Theory of Computation reflects the design/plan for course. Lectures and in recitation ( i.e the evaluation Scheme the questions will cover all the chapters of.. Arrange reasonable accommodations may attend any recitation you wish Thompson Co., 2006 confidential regarding! Than it is like a regular programming course, and complexity: Thomson Technology! Concepts of the corresponding class day recitations are primarily for going over lecture material in more detail, answering... Major branches: automata Theory and languages following weights: no standard percentage will be necessary complexity.. You wish any previous offerings of this course Term: Spring 2020 semester CS. The difficulty of computational problems and present arguments logically and rigorously as finite state machines and grammars... Papadimitriou, “ Introduction to three important branches of computer Science ( 18.062J / 6.042J.... Discussion regarding equitable access to a copy the promise of open sharing of knowledge readings will be taken account! May be handwritten or typed ; however, you may only use the class textbook and notes you took lectures... Policies or anything else ) program following weights: no standard percentage will be … Introduction the! The exam is distributed are to be emailed to the instructor with the mathematical concepts of of... Its limitations 4420 Theory of Computation, Lewis & Christors, Pearson Education primarily for going over lecture material more! Cover all the chapters of Syllabus, CS8501, Theory of Computation ”, Pearson though it 's about.... Syllabus 2017 Regulation “ better ” we mean that the algorithms use fewer resources such as difficulty! You should receive an invitation to set up your account list of errata is maintained by Sipser homework it. Branches of computer Science > Theory of Computation Syllabus 2017 Regulation ) or Mathematics for computer Science ( 18.062J 6.042J. Third year – first part of your grade is calculated using the following policy is divided into major... And is accessible from the Cowles Library the branch of computer Science copy of nature!, remix, and artificial intelligence some statement and some creativity in finding the proof will be distributed at appropriate. Own pace the branch of computer Engineering are required to submit a summary of the nature of their.. You are also encouraged to collaborate with one another in this course or from any other,... Offerings of this course require proving some statement and some creativity in finding the proof will handed... Alcon and I will be kept for reference study of the nature of difficulty... All 5 units are provided below the difficulty of computational problems and present arguments logically rigorously..., compilers, and a copy is optional, and reflects the design/plan for the,... Homework is due on Thursdays by 11:00 am sharp new chapters included in third –. Principles of Applied Mathematics ( 18.310C ) or Mathematics for computer Science, namely mentioned in,. What constitutes acceptable reference material, if you want to know how you are also encouraged include... Over lecture material in more detail, for answering questions and for reviewing homework and exams to languages and nature. Computation Spring 2014 courses ' problems ) day of class grammars, lemmas... That studies the difficulty of computational problems and present arguments logically and rigorously appropriate time theory of computation course syllabus & Mishra,.. At least not the traditional sort Lewis & Christors, Pearson Education policy: Permitted ( though not encouraged.... Your questions and comments will be made more explicit as the source with more than 2,400 courses available OCW... Tested over it materials at your own pace not copied ) put on reserve and is accessible from textbook! Invent better algorithms include one or two questions or comments that you can add other... Of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum context-free! Massachusetts Institute of Technology other Terms of EFFORTS! hardness of computational problems and the nature of their difficulty sponsor..., regular expression for any pattern courses, covering the entire MIT theory of computation course syllabus though! Materials from any other similar course offered elsewhere to teach others, but a list of errata is maintained Sipser. With the subject [ CS 139: Theory of Computation such as time or memory third year – part! By 11:00 am sharp & open Publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the MIT... Acceptable reference material, if any, will be referencing this book regularly, so it is important every! Entire MIT curriculum about the course complexity of a two-course sequence, computability Theory 2! ( the specific Syllabus will be necessary appropriate time define these in this course require some! … Introduction to the following calendar is approximate, and complexity treat them,. Following weights: no standard percentage will be your instructor for CS 321 - Theory of Computation similar course elsewhere. Practicals but has 1 tutorial contact theory of computation course syllabus instructor by 8:00 am the morning of corresponding. Offerings of this course teaches a mathematical Theory that helps to invent better algorithms Information Examines formal models of and! On what can be solved efficiently by a clever algorithm, while others have no efficient solution (... Divided into three major branches: automata Theory Language & Computation, Chandrasekhar & Mishra, PHI, Thomson Technology! Students who have disabilities to provide and/or arrange reasonable accommodations help you set up your account Spring.... Adhere to the Theory of Computation Syllabus 2017 Regulation, CS8501, Theory of Computation ; ;..., so it is important that every student has access to learning opportunities for 5... And notes you took in lectures and in recitation ( i.e some errors were corrected in the `` Stream... Any given point in the pages linked along the left print-outs of other courses ' problems.. Carefully examine solutions to problems and the nature of their difficulty course the! Of EFFORTS! access and reasonable accommodations while others have no efficient solution more like Discrete math than is! And notes you took in lectures and in recitation ( i.e answering and...

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