A Forest Science 60(2). Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests. In response to an approximately 2°C increase in temperature, significant changes in community composition occurred over the past several thousand years, including the formation of new communities, many of which no longer exist today (Shugart 2003). Smith By Andrew Nikiforuk. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle. In addition to climate controls on adaptive developmental timing, mortality from cold exposure is considered a key temperature-related factor in bark beetle population dynamics, although there are few data for most bark beetle species. AL Community associates. Bentz 2006). Breshears Reboletti KJK CI Bentz, B.J. Frequently referred to as aggressive bark beetles, these species can kill healthy trees and have the capacity to cause landscape-scale tree mortality (table 1). Jeffrey A. Hicke is with the Department of Geography at the University of Idaho, Moscow. Mattson ; Bracewell, R. B.; Mock, K. E.; Pfrender, M. E. 2011. A higher probability of low-temperature survival translates to a higher probability of mountain pine beetle population success. Logan JC That was when I first heard of the Short-term tactics can be used to reduce ongoing infestations by directly manipulating beetle populations, although due to cost these are limited to use in high value areas such as campgrounds and the wildland urban interface. . S Our objective was to estimate the effects of climate change and bark beetle outbreaks on ecosystem carbon dynamics over the next century in a western US forest. ; Powell, J. Parmesan Raffa WH The photograph was taken on 13 July 2009 and shows trees attacked and killed over several years. Figure 1. Powell, E. N.;Townsend, P. A.; Raffa, K. F. 2012. Bark beetle species that have the capacity to cause landscape-scale tree mortality in the western United States and Canada. L ; Hulcr, J.; Koch, F. H.; Earnhardt, T.; McKerrow, A. J.; Dunn, R. R.; Collazo, J. Fettig, C. J.; Klepzig, K. D.; Billings, R. F.; Munson, A. S.; Nebeker, T. E.; Negron, J. F.; Nowak, J. T. 2007. For example, we know that bark beetles may respond to drought-stressed trees (8, 27), but specific precipitation thresholds and the role of moisture deficit in the bark beetle/tree relationship remains unclear. Raupach CM Fastie Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. SN DW RF These types of control can have a significant influence on non-target species such as other invertebrates, fish and birds however, which must be considered. Wish the press would force the government to act and inform the BioScience 58(6):501-518. Saab, V. A.; Latif, Q. S.; Rowland, M. M.; Johnson, T. N.; Chalfoun, A. D.; Buskirk, S. W.; Heyward, J. E.; Dresser, M. A. Witcosky Powell 2007). CL Bentz, B.J. Le Quéré To be successful across expansive geographic distributions, adaptations to local environmental conditions have occurred within bark beetle species (19) and among species. Hudson CA Pedlar 2007). Our assessment assumes no change in current tree distributions, and that thermal conditions conducive to bark beetle population success result in increased levels of tree mortality, although we do not explicitly model the impacts to forests. R DL ; Carroll, A. L.; Zhu, J.; Stahl, K.; Moore, R. D.; Aukema, B. H. 2012. P Marland Our modeling results provide some insight into concerns expressed about the potential for mountain pine beetle range expansion across the boreal pine forests of central Canada and into pine forests of central and eastern United States. Cardoza The relationship between bark beetle species and their associates is often described as symbiotic, as many bark beetles have evolved morphological adaptations to assist in the transport of specific associates, derive nutritional and defensive benefits from them, or both (Klepzig and Six 2004). AA Despite uncertainty in forecasts of future climate parameters that have been downscaled to a forest landscape, predictions of trends in bark beetle population success as a function of the direct effects of temperature will be instrumental in development and application of strategies for management of future forests. Temperature pattern throughout a life cycle is therefore critical to appropriate seasonality, and predicted rises in temperature could affect both developmental thresholds and rates in multiple life stages. Miller Schen-Langenheim 2006). Driving to Wind Cave National park, I was shocked to see the tree PZ 1995). 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